Robo-builder threatens the brickie in the January 14/2007 issue of The Sunday Times describes work done at Loughborough University on robots that can create houses on the spot in a week using concrete and gypsum. A similar initiative at the University of Southern California (Los Angeles) claims they can build a house in a day, but with less sophisticated internal structure.
The inspiration came from the engineering skills of termites and the intricate structure of termite mounds. Animal Engineering: The Ultimate Smart Structure provides additional information.
Thanks to Ian Abbott-Donnelly for the pointer!